Tools 'N Tips:
Pottery and Art Pottery
for dating marks
Printed marks incorporating the Royal
Arms are of 19th or 20th century date.
Printed marks incorporating the name of
the pattern are subsequent to 1810.
Marks incorporating the word 'Limited',
or the abbreviations 'Ltd', 'Ld', etc., denote a date after 1861, and most
examples are much later.
Incorporation of the words 'Trade Mark'
in a mark denotes a date subsequent to the Act of 1862.
Inclusion of the word 'Royal' in a firm's
title or trade name suggests a date in the second half of the 19th century,
if not a 20th-century dating.
Inclusion of the abbreviation 'R N' (for
Registered Number) followed by numerals denotes a date subsequent to 1883.
Inclusion of the word 'England',
'Germany', 'France', 'Italy' denotes a date after 1891, although some
manufacturers added the word slightly before this date.
'Made in England', 'Made in Germany' and
so on, denotes a 20th-century date.
'Bone China', 'English Bone China', etc.,
denotes a 20th-century date.
German hard-paste, or true, porcelain produced in Bavaria
from the mid-18th century to the present day. Its fame rests on its figures,
particularly those in the Rococo style modeled between 1754 and 1763 by Franz
Anton Bustelli (1723–1763). Tableware and vases produced at the factory in
Nymphenburg, on the outskirts of Munich, often contain ozier, or basketwork,
Semi-translucent glaze, usually green in color
Crackle - Intentional crazing introduced by the Chinese
Crazing - A defect in clayware glaze
consisting of a network of tiny cracks caused by the differences in the rate
of contraction between the body and glaze. Almost the same in appearance to
Enamels - Made from metal oxides and applied as over decoration
Flambé - A glaze deep crimson in color.
Lead glaze - Made from lead oxide, it produces a clear glaze
Salt glaze - A semi-matte or
half glossy glaze obtained by injecting salt into the kiln during the last
Slip- Made from mixing clay and water. Used to decorate (bit like icing a
Tenmoku -A high temperature
firing brown/black feldspathic stoneware glaze deeply stained using iron
oxide. Tenmoku originated in China during the T'ang Dynasty. However it was
during the Sung Dynasty that the technique of firing became perfected,
enabling a much thicker glaze to be applied to the ware.
Tin glaze - Glaze containing tin oxide, giving a white opaque color. The Dutch
Delftwares are a good example.
Earthenware - Pottery that is not vitrified. Probably the
first type of pottery ever made. It comes in a variety of colors form cream
through red/orange to black and is porous.
Stoneware - Stonewares are impervious to liquid without the need of a glaze,
made from certain types of clay and something like sand or flint, fired at
very high temperatures making it very strong.
Porcelain - There are 2 types of porcelain hard-paste and soft-paste.
Procelain's main property is translucent in varying degrees. The hard-paste
porcelain is fired at a much higher temperature than soft-paste. Soft-paste can
be marked with a file whereas hard-paste can't. When broken the hard-paste
forms shards. Soft-paste feels "warm" to the touch.
Armorial ware -
Wares decorated with coats of arms.
Botanical ware - Wares decorated with flowers and plants usually taken from
Chinoiseries - European interpretations of oriental decorations. When the
Chinese began exporting their hand-painted creations to Europe, these products
could not meet the growing demand and craftsmen and artists from all over
Europe began to produce their own alternatives - chinoiseries. Chinoiseries became all the rage and an essential element of decoration in
palaces of all sizes, from Naples to Saint-Petersburg.
Combing - Decoration
produced by dragging a comb through applied slip.
Commemorative ware - Wares produced to commemorate a specific event
Gilding - Refers to applied gold--usually on porcelain.
Kakiemon - a porcelain of a high quality produced during the 18th, 19th and
20th centuries as well as a distinct type of decoration in enamels with much
in common with the Chinese "Famille Verte" style. The potting and painted
decoration of Kakiemon is usually finer than Imari
Ground - An area of color that has
gilding or painting applied.
Majolica - Earthenware pottery decorated with brightly colored lead
development of this tradition (somewhere around the 16th century in Italy)
depended on experimentation with drawing, color and subject matter: it was
essentially painters pottery with a very sophisticated level of manufacture
Pate-sur-Pate - The
white design on a colored background is slowly built up and worked to give the
look of a cameo.
Scraffito - A type of ceramic decoration produced by casting a piece with a
layer of colored slip (or liquid clay) then incising a design in that layer to
let the original body color show through.
Slipware - Earthenware decorated with slip
Bone China - A hybrid hard-paste porcelain containing bone
Delft - Tin-glazed earthenware, giving a white opaque color, named after the
Dutch Delftwares made in Delft, Holland.
High-fired French or German pottery,
porous, glazed earthenware usually with a highly colorful decoration.
Flatware - Refers to plates and shallow bowls
Parian - Unglazed biscuit porcelain made to look like marble.
Raku - Describes a method developed in Japan. The method
requires that the pot be heated, then removed the pot from the heat source and
burying it in various materials. The pot is removed and cooled preventing
Staffordshire - Pottery from an area in the Midlands UK
Studio Pottery - Pottery produced by a single person or small group. A piece
of true studio pottery is unique.
Terracotta - Unglazed fired earthenware